Biological Society of Slovenia



Contents (Abstracts)


11: 1 (1963)    40: 3-4 (1995)    42: 2 (1999)    43: 3 (2000)    44: 1-2 (2001)    45: 2 (2002)    46: 1 (2003)    47: 1 (2004)    47: 2 (2004)    48: 1 (2005)    48: 2 (2005)    49: 1 (2006)    49: 2 (2006)    50: 1 (2007)    50: 2 (2007)    51: 1 (2008)    51: 2 (2008)    52: 1 (2009)    52: 2 (2009)    53: 1 (2010)    53: 2 (2010)    54: 1 (2011)    54: 2 (2011)    55: 1 (2012)    55: 2 (2012)    56: 1 (2013)    56: 2 (2013)    57: 1 (2014)    57: 2 (2014)    58: 1 (2015)    58: 2 (2015)    59: 1 (2016)    59: 2 (2016)    60: 1 (2017)    60: 2 (2017)    61: 1 (2018)    61: 2 (2018)    62: 1 (2019)    62: 2 (2019)   

Contents: Volume 62, Nr. 2 (2019)

Investigation of the toxicity, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of some cyanobacterial strains isolated from different habitats

Nooshin Rajabpour, Bahareh Nowruzi, Maryam Ghobeh


Cyanobacteria are known as a source of fine chemicals, renewable fuels,

and toxic compounds. The present study aimed at evaluating the toxicity and antioxidant

and antimicrobial activities of four cyanobacterial strains isolated from different

habitats. Due to the lack of information regarding the relationship between toxicity

and biological activity of the cyanobacteria in terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems of

Iran, we decided to conduct a preliminary study on the cyanobacterial strains in order

to identify the potentially toxic cyanobacteria strains. In this respect, biosynthesis

genes related to cyanobacterial toxins, anatoxins ( anaC gene), nodularins ( ndaF gene)

and microcystins ( mcyG gene) were amplified. In addition, antioxidant, antimicrobial

and biochemical properties of cyanobacterial strains have also been evaluated. The

results of the molecular analysis demonstrated that only Fischerella sp. contained the

microcystins ( mcyG) gene. In fact, this strain encounters numerous predators in its

habitat, therefore antibacterial and antioxidant metabolites found in this strain have

thought to play an important role in defense mechanisms. This case is the documentation

of toxicity and promotion of biological activities of a soil cyanobacterium regarding

survival in competitive ecological niches.


antioxidant, antimicrobial, toxicity, cyanobacteria

Effect of per oral administration of the ŽP strain, a new potential probiotic, on rats

Irina L. Maslennikova, Ekaterina G. Orlova, Julia S. Gizatullina, Marjanca Starčič Erjavec, Natalia P. Loginova, Yana N. Troinich, Marina V. Kuznetsova


Bacterial antimicrobial resistance is worldwide rising and is already

reaching worrisome levels, hence WHO released the priority bacterial pathogen list for

research and development of new antimicrobial agents. ŽP strain, a new Nissle 1917

based antimicrobial strain harbors a bacteriocin, colicin ColE7, bacterial conjugationbased

“kill” – “anti-kill” antimicrobial system. In previous studies the efficiency of

ColE7 bacterial conjugation-based antimicrobial system was shown against different

Escherichia coli strains. In this study its effect after the per oral administration of the ŽP

strain, on the host, namely on rats of both sexes was studied. The following parameters

were analyzed weight, histology of intestine, spleen and Peyer’s patches, blood biochemistry,

hematology and microbicide activity of leukocytes and peritoneal macrophages.

Our results showed that when administered at a dose of 5 × 10 8 CFU in the drinking

water the ŽP strain is safe and responsible for control and maintenance of an adequate

local and non-specific immune response and can also improve the performance of animals

in terms of weight gain. Hence our results indicate that it is a promising probiotic.


probiotic, Nissle 1917 strain, host response, rat

Allelopathic effect of aqueous extracts of Canadian goldenrod on germination and growth of radish

Alvina Leticia Anžlovar, Sabina Anžlovar


In this study we tested the effects of Solidago canadensis extracts on seed

germination and early growth of radish ( Raphanus sativus ). The aqueous extracts of 2.5%

(m/v) concentration were prepared from roots, rhizomes, stems, leaves and inflorescences

and applied onto the filter paper in Petri dishes where radish seeds were sown. We

determined the germination rate and seedling growth for four days. The extracts from

leaves and inflorescences delayed germination, whereas extracts from stems and roots

had no significant effect on seed germination. The extracts from rhizome had a slightly

stimulatory effect on the seed germination and promoted shoot length of radish seedlings,

while extracts from leaves inhibited root and shoot length and seedlings development.


Solidago canadensis, Raphanus sativus , germination, allelopathy, seedling growth

Fitness evaluation of Oenopia conglobata contaminata (Menetries) (Col.: Coccinellidae) fed on different diets

Fatemeh Hassani, Asghar Shirvani, Maryam Rashki


Due to the importance of coccinellid predators as biological control

agents of insect pests, the effects of different factitious and artificial diets on reproductive

parameters of Oenopia conglobata contaminata (Menetries) were studied

under laboratory conditions (26±1oC, 60±5% relative air humidity and a photoperiod

of 16h light : 8 h dark). In this study, various combinations of Ephestia kuehniella

(Zeller) eggs, bee pollen, cysts of Artemia urmiana Günther and lyophilized artificial

diet were used. All diets affected fitness parameters of the ladybeetle. The adult weight

(12.00±1.30 mg), fecundity (725±29.31 eggs), oviposition rate (15.72±0.85 eggs),

fertility (4.86±0.34 larvae) and number of egg clusters (66.16±2.87) were higher on

unlimited E. kuehniella eggs plus pollen (UEkP) than those on the other diets. The

adults lived longer when fed on EkPLd (the E. kuehniella eggs plus pollen and a mixture

of lyophilized diet) and UEkP diets (58.57±2.38 and 62.77±3.64 days, respectively)

than when fed on the other offered diets. More eggs were hatched when adults reared

on EkPLd and EkLd (the E. kuehniella eggs plus a mixture of lyophilized diet) diets

(36.44±1.93 and 40.01±2.58 %, respectively). The parameter values were increased

when the E. kuehniella eggs were used in a mix with bee pollen and artificial lyophilized

diet and resulted in producing the heavier adults with longer longevity and more

fertile eggs. Certainly, the diet will be more cost-effective than natural prey for mass

production of the predatory coccinellid, O. conglobata contaminata .


rtificial diet, biological control, biological parameters, factitious diet, predator

What happened to the genus Gammarus (Crustacea: Amphipoda) in Central Asia

Boris Sket, Dmitry Sidorov, Zhonge Hou


We examined the phylogenetic relationships in the unusually structured

fauna of the amphipod genus Gammarus in Central Asia, trying to explain its causes.

Mitochondrial DNA sequence data were used in MP and ML and Bayesian analyses

to generate a phylogenetic hypothesis. All of the recently collected Gammarus spp.

specimens belong to the G. lacustris aggregate, except scarce marginal populations of

G. balcanicus and G. komareki aggregates. Although molecularly closely related, these.

G. lacustris agg. populations are morphologically and ecologically equally diverse as

are the numerous European Gammarus spp. Only few populations are morphologically

close to the morphotype of G. lacustris . There is a more than 2,000 km wide

gap between the eastern and western populations-species of G. balcanicus agg. Since

Gammarus lacustris can be spread by birds, and its Asian relatives are molecularly

significantly diverse, we suppose that it invaded Central Asia several times and from

several sources. It most probably differentiated to diverse morphotypes after reach ing

Asia. The area of the cryophilic and less nomadic G. balcanicus could have been

reached and conquered only by waterways. Its area was probably continuous in the

past and divided by aridification during the Neogene. The strong historical aridifica tions

probably extirpated the probably higher Gammarus diversity in Central Asia,

including G. balcanicus . This opened the area and its habitats for the reiterated invasions

of the particularly euryoecious G. lacustris s.l., followed by its morphological

and ecological diversification.


Amphipoda, biogeography, diversification, Palearctic

Toxicological analysis of the content of military canteens buried for 70 years in the karst cave in Kočevsko, South-Eastern Slovenia

Janez Mulec, Sara Skok, Vesna Zalar Serjun, Andrej Mihevc


Forensic examinations can be performed on well-preserved objects to

detect material traces. A large number of objects were discovered in the cave Brezno

v Debliških livadah, which were dumped in the cave in May and June 1945. Among

the discovered material there were also military canteens (drinking bottles). Some

canteens still contained liquids, and some even a semi-hard, gel precipitate. The liquid

and precipitate from the analyzed canteens contained metals that were most likely

leached from the metal containers. The corrosion of the canteens is indicated by the

presence of a hematite mineral. The content of canteens contained some dissolved

organic matter (Total Organic Carbon, TOC, in the liquid = 9.22 mg/l, in the liquid

from extracted precipitate = 34.1 mg/l), some microbial biomass and relatively high

nitrate concentrations (240 mg/l in liquid, 55 mg/l in extracted precipitates) and sulfate

(18 mg/l in liquid, 836 mg/l in extracted precipitate). Bacterial indicators, Escherichia

coli and enterococci, indicating faecal contamination of the canteens‘ contents, were

not detected. The liquid and precipitate exhibited a similar degree of toxicity, about

20% inhibition of the bioluminescence of Vibrio fischeri . According to the Slovenian

Rules on drinking water, the liquid with the present chemical properties is not suitable

for human consumption. The results do not necessarily indicate that liquids were

already toxic when the canteens were thrown into the cave, but the toxicity could

have developed progressively due to (bio)chemical reactions and leaching of metals,

in particular aluminum, from the canteens. In spite of the stable cave conditions to

which canteens have been exposed, the observed parameters do not support long-term

preservation of stable DNA for potential future forensic analyses.


caves, military material, toxicity


© 2003, Društvo biologov Slovenije –
Journal of Biological Society of Slovenia

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