Biological Society of Slovenia



Contents (Abstracts)


11: 1 (1963)    40: 3-4 (1995)    42: 2 (1999)    43: 3 (2000)    44: 1-2 (2001)    45: 2 (2002)    46: 1 (2003)    47: 1 (2004)    47: 2 (2004)    48: 1 (2005)    48: 2 (2005)    49: 1 (2006)    49: 2 (2006)    50: 1 (2007)    50: 2 (2007)    51: 1 (2008)    51: 2 (2008)    52: 1 (2009)    52: 2 (2009)    53: 1 (2010)    53: 2 (2010)    54: 1 (2011)    54: 2 (2011)    55: 1 (2012)    55: 2 (2012)    56: 1 (2013)    56: 2 (2013)    57: 1 (2014)    57: 2 (2014)    58: 1 (2015)    58: 2 (2015)    59: 1 (2016)    59: 2 (2016)    60: 1 (2017)    60: 2 (2017)    61: 1 (2018)    61: 2 (2018)    62: 1 (2019)   

Contents: Volume 53, Nr. 2 (2010)

Za vedno je odšel Tone Wraber




Juncus atratus Krock. ( Juncaceae ) rediscovered in Slovenia



Juncus atratus Krock. of the Juncaceae family is a Central European- Southern Siberian wet-meadow species. In Central Europe, the species is very rare and threatened. In Slovenian Red Data List, it is listed among unsuffi ciently known species (K). The only record of the species in Slovenian territory (Prem near Ilirska Bistrica, SW Slovenia) is over 100 years old and has never been confi rmed afterwards. In May 2010, the species was found in Goričko (NE Slovenia), were it thrives on a wet meadow near Kobilje village. The article discusses the recent fi nding of the species in Slovenia in broader context, its distribution, habitat and threat factors. The aim of the study was also to provide bases for nature-conservation of the species

in Slovenia. According to recent fi nding and the results of the study, the authors suggest Juncus atratus to be regarded as ‘endangered’ (E) in the national red data list.


Juncus atratus, Juncaceae, nature-conservation, Slovenian fl ora, Goričko, Red Data List, wet meadows

Damage by Pests in Herbarium LJU

Tinka BAČIČ, Branka TRČAK, Nejc JOGAN


The article discusses the damage caused by herbarium pests in Herbarium LJU. The aim

of the study was to determine the damage in the herbarium, to fi nd out, which herbarium-pests are present,

and to investigate their food-preference by means of checking the extent of damage on a selection of plant

families Alliaceae, Apiaceae, Araceae, Asteraceae , Brassicaceae , Chenopodiaceae , Cichoriaceae, Fabaceae ,

Lamiaceae , Poaceae , Polypodiaceae , Ranunculaceae , Rosaceae and Scrophulariaceae. Since the

Asteraceae and Cichoriaceae are known to be among the most attractive families for herbarium-pests, we

examined them in detail. In the study about 7500 herbarium sheets were examined, which represents 5%

of all the sheets in Herbarium LJU. In addition to the most frequent pest tobacco beetle ( Lasioderma serricorne),

we also found beetles Stegobium paniceum and Attagenus piceus , booklice ( Psocoptera ), moulds

and Pharaoh’s ants (cf. Monomorium pharaonis ). Pest-damage was observed in 18 % of the examined

herbarium sheets. The study confi rmed that the pests are prone to attack certain families over others: the

greatest damage (about 25 % - 40 % of the damaged sheets) was observed in Apiaceae , Asteraceae s. lat. ,

Brassicaceae , Fabaceae , Alliaceae , Araceae , Rosaceae and Chenopodiaceae, while the other investigated

families ranked among less damaged (about less then 10 % of the damaged sheets). Among Asteraceae ,

tribus Cardueae proved to be the most attractive tribe for the pests.


Herbarium LJU, herbarium-pests, dry plants, Lasioderma serricorne, Stegobium paniceum, Attagenus piceus, Psocoptera

Vegetation of the depressions with Eleocharis quinquefolia in spring fens in Slovenia



During the investigations of wetlands in Slovenia over the last decade specific plant communities in spring fens were found. Stands with species Eleocharis quinquefl ora occurring in depressions inundated with standing and/or running water were found in the Alpine, pre-Alpine and Dinaric phytogeographic regions of Slovenia. Standard Central European method

for vegetation research was used and multivariate analyses were performed using Syn-Tax program. Stands were classifi ed in two different species-poor, small-scale plant communities, most of them into association Eleocharitetum paucifl orae Lüdi 1921. This rare plant community occurs in the Alpine and Carpathian regions and in northern Europe and has not been recorded in

Slovenia before. The association Eleocharitetum paucifl orae is a two-layered plant community of calcium-rich fens. It thrives in shallow temporary paddies and on the sandy or stony slopes with seeping water. Smaller group of relevés was classifi ed into association Scorpidio-Utricularietum minoris Ilschner ex T.Müller et Görs 1960. This association thrives in permanent paddies, where the water is deeper as in a case of the fi rst association. Since the dominating species Eleocharis quinquefl ora and Utricularia minor , respectively, have the status of a vulnerable species according to Red List of Slovenia, the stands of the studied communities, which represent vital populations, should be preserved as well as the corresponding habitat types.


wetland, fen, plant community, Eleocharis quinquefl ora, Utricularia minor , vulnerable species

Environmental assessment and macrophytes of the watercourses Bloščica and Cerkniščica

Špela MECHORA, Urška KUHAR, Mateja GERM


The aim of the present work was to determine the abundance and distribution of macrophytes in streams Bloščica and Cerkniščica and to establish the relation between environment characteristics and abundance of macrophytes. The environmental and macrophytes’ inventory was made on the whole length of the watercourse. We determined a presence, abundance and growth form of macrophytes and environmental parameters according to modifi ed RCE Inventory. Nineteen taxa were found in the watercourse Bloščica and 20 taxa in the watercourse Cerkniščica. Canonical correspondence analysis revealed that six environmental parameters signifi cantly affected macrophyte community, the most infl uential being bottom structure, the width of riparian zone, retention devices in a channel and the land use beyond the riparian zone.


environmental assessment, macrophytes, watercourses

A hydro-acoustics approach of accessing macrophyte biomass data

Norbert EXLER, Georg JANAUER


Hydro-acoustic methods are commonly used to estimate the abundance and distribution

pattern of fi sh in aquatic environments, while studies on the assessment of the biomass

of submerged macrophytes in the littoral zones are still rare. In the present study we provide fi rst

results showing that indeed this method is a useful tool to estimate the aquatic plant stands in

lakes. The aim of the recent presentation is to show an initial data evaluation by graphs describing

hydro-acoustic signals at three distinct layers in a small shallow lake: the solid sediment, the fi ne

or muddy sediment, and the ‘plant canopy’ of submerse macrophytes. The most diffi culties of

data processing and assessment of biomass were for hydro-acoustic records close to the water

surface where the echo-signal is interfered by refl ectance. Methodological details and progress

in evaluating hydro-acoustic records will be discussed.


aquatic macrophytes, biomass, hydro-acoustics

In vitro propagation of Lilium martagon L. var. cattaniae Vis. and evaluation of genotoxic potential of its leaves and bulbs extracts



Lilium martagon L. var. cattaniae Vis. ( Liliaceae ) is endemic plant of Dinaridi

mountain. In this work we established protocol for fast in vitro propagation and multiplication

of Lilium martagon var. cattaniae . The aim was to enable fast production of plant material as

potential source of pharmaceutically valuable secondary metabolites. Seeds of L. martagon var.

cattaniae were germinated on a Murashige and Skoog basal medium with a supplement of 0.15

mg/l gibberellic acid (GA 3 ), and multiplication was performed on MS medium supplemented

with 0.1 mg/l gibberellic acid (GA 3 ), 0.2 mg/l indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) and 0.5 mg/l 6-benzylaminopurine

(BAP). We used ultrasound assisted extraction to prepare extracts of leaves and

bulbs of Lilium martagon var. cattaniae , which were evaluated for their genotoxic potential using

Allium test and cytokinesis-block micronucleus test in human lymphocytes culture. There was

statistically signifi cant difference between all used concentrations of lilium extracts and control

on proliferation of cells of root tip of onion ( Allium cepa ). In cytokinesis-block micronucleus

test no statistically signifi cant difference between frequencies of analyzed parameters in samples

treated with tested concentrations of extracts and control was obtained.


in vitro culture, ultrasound assisted extraction, micronuclei, genotoxic, Lilium martagon L. var. cattaniae Vis.

Respiration and ingestion rate of different sized Daphnia pulex fed on four algal species

Tatjana SIMČIČ


Respiration rate and ingestion rate for four different algal species ( Scenedesmus

quadricauda, Asterionella formosa, Aphanizomenon fl os-aquae and Planktotrix rubescens ) of

different sized Daphnia pulex were measured in the laboratory. Population of D. pulex grew

maximally when it fed S. quadricauda , but the presence of P. rubescens and A. fl os-aquae caused

negative population growth rate. Ingestion rates increased with increasing body size for all investigated

algae; the lowest b value was obtained for S. quadricauda and the highest one for P.

rubescens . The amount of ingested carbon exceeded the required amount for standard metabolism

in both small and large sized individuals fed all four algal species. Relatively higher amount of

ingested A. fl os-aquae and P. rubescens in comparison with A. formosa and S. quadricauda and

the results of the growth experiments indicate that the inhibitory effect of fi lamentous blue-green

algae on D. pulex is more due to toxicity, low assimilation effi ciency or/and inadequate composition

than incapability of ingestion due to mechanical interference with fi laments.


ingestion rate, respiration, Daphnia pulex, algae, growth scope

Conservation assessment of the butterfl y fauna along the River Sava between Krško and the state border

Tatjana ČELIK


An inventory of butterfl y fauna was carried out in 2008 within the southern part of the Ecological Important Area »the Sava River between Radeče and the state border with Croatia« with the aim of evaluating the most important areas for butterfl ies. Butterfl y fauna was surveyed within a study area of 32 km 2 , using the transect method. Twenty-one combined habitat types were included in the transect lines, with a total length of 19.2 km. The following parameters were used to evaluate the conservation importance of the combined habitat types: species richness of the combined habitat type, population density of species in combined habitat type, total population density of combined habitat type, maximum population density of species in combined habitat type, number of species with maximum population density in combined habitat type, number of threatened species in combined habitat type and number of threatened species with maximum population density in combined habitat type. A total of 69 species of butterfl ies (38% of Slovene butterfl y fauna) were recorded, 10 of which are threatened on national or European level. The most important combined habitat types for butterfl ies are extensively managed dry grasslands, abandoned dry grasslands, some types of semi-intensively used grasslands, some types of ruderal communities, and dry woodland rides and edges. On the basis of the distribution of the most important combined habitat types in the study area, four important areas for butterfl ies were designated, with a total area of 6.6 km 2 . They are important for preserving threatened species, ecological specialists and other rare or locally distributed species in the sub-pannonian part of SE Slovenia.


the River Sava between Krško and the state border, Ecological Important Area, butterfl ies, population density, species richness, index of distribution, threatened species, Habitats Directive

Biological knowledge of Slovenian students in the living systems content area in PISA 2006



PISA 2006, biology, science, knowledge, competencies, Slovenia

Science goes to school: A new model for introduction of modern biology teaching strategies to Slovene schools



In the framework of the project Science Goes to School , we developed and tested a new model for introduction of modern biology teaching strategies to Slovene schools. The project focused around a close university-school partnership, bringing together the expertise of scientists from the University of Ljubljana and the experiences of teachers from 22 Slovene secondary schools (grades 9-12, age of students 15-19). The project comprised three phases. During the introductory workshop, project scientists and partner teachers identifi ed curriculum topics with an acute lack of good-quality teaching materials. During the second phase, university scientists developed new practical activities for students and prepared comprehensive teaching materials. Each new activity was tested in partner schools, with a scientist acting as a visiting teacher. Partner teachers were present in the class during testing and were hence trained in the authentic environment of their own classrooms. Both teachers and students contributed their comments and suggestions for improvement of new activities. The visiting scientist also acted as a role model motivating the students to consider science careers. During the third phase, the new teaching materials were published in a handbook for teachers and on the internet. In addition, the new activities were presented to a wider community of teachers and school laboratory assistants during a training workshop. The project was favourably received among the teachers, the project scientists and the students in partner schools. To effi ciently improve biology education in Slovene schools, such activities require long-term, stable funding from national sources.


science education, biology, teaching, effective learning, university-school partnership


© 2003, Društvo biologov Slovenije –
Journal of Biological Society of Slovenia

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